Este método geofísico se basa en la medición de los tiempos de llegada de las ondas sísmicas (ondas P longitudinales y ondas S transversales) refractadas por las interfaces entre estratificaciones del suelo, caracterizadas por diferentes velocidades de propagación.
La fuente de energía es un impacto en la superficie. La energía se irradia desde el punto de explosión, bien viajando directamente a la capa más superficial (llegadas directas), bien viajando en profundidad y lateralmente a lo largo de capas a mayor velocidad (llegadas refractarias); una vez en la superficie, la energía se detecta mediante el despliegue de geófonos (frecuencia 10Hz). Energizando en diferentes posiciones en la superficie será posible obtener información sobre la geometría de la capa refractora profunda, en muchos casos coincidiendo con el sustrato rocoso (bedrock). Partiendo de los valores de Vp y Vs del modelo sismo-estratigráfico obtenido, también será posible estimar los módulos elásticos de los diversos horizontes identificados.
Cuando un perfil de refracción sísmica prevea espacios fuente/receptor más densos que los utilizados para los perfiles convencionales, podrá realizarse una interpretación de la tomografía sísmica de refracción; los programas de interpretación especializados utilizarán un método de inversión iterativa que permita una determinación más precisa y detallada de las variaciones continuas de velocidad, así como de la geometría de los horizontes sismo-estratigráfico.
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