A la lumière de la nouvelle norme anti-sismique, la mesure des vibrations sismiques environnementales ou du bruit sismique a acquis une importance considérable. L’analyse des mesures de bruit sismique peut être conduite selon trois méthodes : 1) Spectres de Fourier 2) Rapports spectraux 3) Rapports spectraux H/V. Ce dernier, qui fournit les résultats les plus surs est connu comme la méthode HVSR (Horizontal to Vertical Spectral Ratio) ou méthode de Nakamura. Le relevé des données HVSR, réalisable à travers des géophones triaxiaux à basse fréquence, permet de déterminer avec précision la fréquence caractéristiques de résonance du site, paramètre indispensable pour la dimension correcte des édifices anti-sismiques. Les études de microzonage sismique grâce à la méthode de mesure des HVSR sont donc devenues un instrument intégrant et fondamental dans la conception des édifices anti-sismiques.
Les données relevées devront en effet être considérées en phase de conception, opérant pour édifier des structures ayant différentes fréquences de résonance par rapport au terrain et en évitant ainsi l’effet de double résonance, extrêmement dangereux pour la stabilité structurelle des bâtiments.
A partir d’une mesure de fréquence de résonance du sol, il est possible d’obtenir une estimation des Vs des couvertures, à condition que la profondeur de la couche qui la génère soit connue, ou vice versa.
Étant donné que la stratigraphie Vs est également dérivée des essais MASW, la combinaison des résultats des deux méthodologies sur le même site constitue un complément important d’information et de contrainte réciproque, tant en profondeur qu’en surface.
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