soil resistivity

soil resistivity

high-tech instruments for earth resistivity surveys

In geoelectric prospecting, the physical parameter that is determined is the electrical resistivity of the formations that constitute the subsoil and that can vary according to the lithotype, the degree of homogeneity, the degree of alteration and fracturing, the content in water and salts, the granulometry, etc. Other electrical methods, usually dedicated to mining research, geothermal energy or the dispersion of liquids in the ground, are instead based on the measurement of Self Potential or Induced Polarization.

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1D VERTICAL ELECTRICAL SURVEYS (VES)

To perform subsurface resistivity measurements in the event that the layering is flat and parallel, the Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) technique is used: this involves a series of soil resistivity measurements carried out with an increasing progressive distance between the current electrodes (AB) and potential electrodes (MN), according to a four-electrode device (among the most common the 4-point Wenner and the 4-point Schlumberger). 

WHAT YOU NEED

soil resistivity

instrument

P.A.S.I. RM-1 Earth Resistivity Meter

RM1 is a compact versatile soil resistivity meter with 24 bit data acquisition. The console keyboard allows easy and immediate access to all the main functions, even in harsh environmental conditions. When connected to your laptop via the dedicated software, RM1 becomes an invaluable aid in programming your work and creating tailor-made measuring session (VES/ERT).

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accessories for VES

1 (or more) P-200 (geoelectric energizer)   +

2x AB cables 
2x MN cables 
2x copper stakes (M-N) 
2x steel stakes (A-B) 
2x unpolarizable electrodes (M-N – for PS measurements only)
2x mallets 

software (choice of one)  +

VES 2000
ZONDVES1D-25 (VES only – max. 25 stations)
ZONDVESIP1D-25 (VES & IP – max. 25 stations)
ZONDVESIP1D-FULL (VES & IP – full version)

ELECTRICAL IMAGING (ERT 2D/3D/4D)

Although it started from the basic principles of geoelectrics, electrical tomography (ERT) has opened a new chapter in the history of geophysical surveys: in this case, the ground survey is carried out with a set of electrodes distributed along a profile a few metres away. The measurements proceed automatically according to the desired sequence, returning apparent resistivity values at different depths and locations along the profile itself. The final result of the processing of this data is a two-dimensional profile of the distribution of soil resistivity values. A high resolution 2.5D image can be obtained by combining multiple soil resistivity profiles parallel to each other. With a greater number of electrodes it is even possible to perform true 3D and 4D tomography investigations, suitably interpreted using sophisticated processing software. 

WHAT YOU NEED up to 256 electrodes

electrical imaging

instrument

P.A.S.I. POLARES max 256 electrodes

Compact, simple and intuitive, POLARES 2.0 electrical imaging system can simultaneously measure and display all survey parameters: soil resistivity, current, voltage, self potential, standard deviations and induced polarization. It easily managing all multi-electrode array configurations for the measurement of apparent resistivity: Schlumberger, Wenner, Dipole-Dipole (user defined configurations are also available through Utility Software delivered with the instruments).

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accessories for (ERT) / VES

2 (or more) MPX (each manages a group of 16 el.)  +
2 or more multi-electrode cables (16 el. each) – standard spacing 5m or 10m 
Extension cable for MPX (1 for each 16 electrodes, starting from 48 el. and up) 
32 or more stainless steel stakes
- To also carry out VES 1D:
1x adapter for VES 
Accessories for VES (4el.)  

software (choice of one)  +

RES2DINV-RES3DINV
ZONDRES2D
ZONDRES2D-3D
SOFTWARE PER SEV 

WHAT YOU NEED up to 32 electrodes

instrument

P.A.S.I. RM-1 Soil Resistivity Meter max 32 electrodes

RM1 is a compact versatile soil resistivity meter with 24 bit data acquisition. The console keyboard allows easy and immediate access to all the main functions, even in harsh environmental conditions. When connected to your laptop via the dedicated software, RM1 becomes an invaluable aid in programming your work and creating tailor-made measuring session (VES/ERT).
Completed with the necessary accessories for electrical tomography is able to realize electrical imaging profiles up to a maximum of 32 el.

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accessories for ERT

2 (or more) P-200 (geoelectric energizer)  +
1-2 MPX (16/32 el.)  +
1-2 multi-electrode cables (16 el. each) - standard spacing 5m or 10m
1 adapter RM1 TA for electrical tomography 
16/32 stainless steel stakes 

software (choice of one)  +

RES2DINV-RES3DINV
ZONDRES2D
ZONDRES2D-3D